Hepatitis A Virus

What is the hepatitis A virus? The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Picornaviridae family and the genus Hepatovirus. It is an enteric virus and causes a liver disease in humans now known as

Noroviruses

What are noroviruses? Noroviruses is the name given to a group of related single-stranded RNA viruses that have recently been classified in the family Caliciviridae, genus Norovirus. These highly infectious enteric viruses are a major

Ochratoxins

What are ochratoxins? Ochratoxins are a small group of chemically related toxic fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) produced by certain moulds of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium growing on a wide range of raw food commodities. Some

Controlling Food Allergens

The issue of food allergy has become an increasingly important one for the food industry over the last ten years. The prevalence of allergic reactions to certain foods seems to be increasing in the population and legislation has been

Melamine

What is melamine? Melamine is a synthetic triazine compound and an organic base (C3N6H6, CAS number 108-78-1) with the chemical name 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine. It is an important industrial chemical and has been used as a

Scombrotoxin (Histamine)

What is scombrotoxin? Scombrotoxin is a foodborne toxin most often associated with the consumption of fish, particularly species belonging to the Scombridae and Scomberesocidae families (scombroid fish), such as mackerel and tuna. It

Trichinella

What is Trichinella? Trichinella is a genus of parasitic nematode worms that can cause a potentially serious infection (trichinellosis or trichinosis) in humans following consumption of infected meat. Trichinella was first described

Ciguatoxins

What are ciguatoxins? The ciguatoxins (CTXs) are a group of marine biotoxins, which are the cause of a foodborne intoxication known as ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). CFP is associated with consumption of coral reef fish from

Cryptosporidium

What is Cryptosporidium? Cryptosporidium is a single-celled protozoan parasite belonging to the subclass Coccidia. Until recently, the only species thought to be important in human illness was referred to as Cryptosporidium parvum.

Bisphenol A

What is bisphenol A? Bisphenol A (BPA) is a phenolic compound (C15H16O2, CAS No. 80-05-7), also referred to as 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane. It was first synthesized over a hundred years ago and is an important industrial chemical

Campylobacter

What is Campylobacter? Campylobacter is a genus of Gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria containing at least 16 different species, some of which, especially C. jejuni, but also C. coli, C. lari, C. hyointestinalis and C. upsaliensis,

Patulin

What is patulin? Patulin is a toxic fungal metabolite (mycotoxin) produced by certain moulds of the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys growing on various food commodities, especially fruit. Patulin exhibits a number of

Salmonella

What is Salmonella? Salmonella is a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to a family called the Enterobacteriaceae, but it is not included in the group of bacteria referred to as coliforms. Salmonella is one of the principal

Listeria

What is Listeria? Listeria is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria, containing a number of species including L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii and L. grayi. Although the first four of these

Glycoalkaloids

What are glycoalkaloids? Many plants in the potato family (Solanaceae) contain glycoalkaloids, and they are considered to be natural toxins. They are active as pesticides and fungicides and are produced by the plants as a

Aflatoxins

What are aflatoxins? The aflatoxins are a group of chemically similar toxic fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) produced by certain moulds of the genus Aspergillus growing on a number of raw food commodities. Aflatoxins are highly toxic

HIV AIDS in Asia and the Pacific

Asia and the Pacific is a particularly high-risk region when it comes to HIV and AIDS. While over a million Americans are currently infected with the virus, nearly six million have HIV or AIDS in the Asia and Pacific region of the world.